Mitigación del drenaje ácido de las minas: una revisión

Palabras clave: drenaje ácido de minas, drenaje ácido de rocas, colas, mitigación

Resumen

El drenaje ácido de minas (AMD) o drenaje ácido de rocas (ARD) hace referencia a los efluentes de las minas de carbón y metal. El AMD es un fenómeno común que se produce naturalmente como un proceso de erosión de la roca, pero que aumenta en gran escala, debido a las actividades humanas como las construcciones (corredores de transporte, construcción de presas, etcétera) y las operaciones mineras. Este fenómeno denota el agua ácida que se produce durante la exposición de los minerales
de sulfuro (principalmente pirita) al aire y al agua a través de un proceso natural, y crea ácido sulfúrico. El AMD es un peligro para los animales, la vida acuática y los seres humanos, ya que aumenta la acidez y disuelve los metales. La prevención y el tratamiento del AMD es una cuestión importante en una mina, no solo durante la vida de la operación sino también después de que la mina es abandonada.

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Publicado
2020-12-01
Cómo citar
Lazo, D. (2020). Mitigación del drenaje ácido de las minas: una revisión. Ingeniería Industrial, (039), 97-118. https://doi.org/10.26439/ing.ind2020.n039.4917
Sección
Calidad y medio ambiente